Utopia (Greek: No Place) is an imaginary, perfect society, where everyone is happy. In Utopia, man has been perfected, it is heaven on earth, all human beings are equal, and think and act the same. The idea of a mythical perfect society was first mentioned by Plato in his work The Republic in 380 BC. The word 'Utopia' was coined by Sir Thomas More in his 1516 book Utopia, depicting a fictional island paradise in the Atlantic Ocean. In the Wizard of Oz movie, the Land of Oz was depicted as Utopia.
In 1848, Karl Marx wrote in the Communist Manifesto that it is historically inevitable for societies to pass through four stages: feudalism, capitalism, socialism, and finally communism. In communist society, Marx described a 'workers paradise' where perfect happiness and universal fulfillment would be achieved though the abundance of goods and services that only a government controlled society could produce.
In the modern era, socialists adopted Thomas More's satirical idea of Utopia and Marx's worker's paradise as the realistic blueprint for a nation state. Ruling over 'paradise,' the leader of Communist society was considered to be 'God on earth'. However, countries that adopted the Marxist model suffered economic devastation and biological destruction as 100 million were killed in peacetime through starvation, gulags, and political repression in an attempt to mold human beings to fit into Utopia.